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International Cartographic Association has adopted the following limited definition: "Cartography is the totality of scientific, technical and artistic activities aimed at production of maps related representation on the basis of data (field measurement, aerial photographs, satellite imagery, statistical materials etc.) collected by other disciplines".

The united Nations, however, uses a much wider concept of Cartography, dating from 1948 according to which 'It is the science of surveying and mapping and embraces all phases of mapping from data collection to data processing and data presentation, thus including surveying, aerial photography, topography, toponymy, photogrammetry, drawing and map reproduction' .

In professional usage cartography embraces production of various topographical, engineering, geographical and thematic, earth sciences/resources maps. The Science and art of mapping i.e. Cartography is in a state of rapid evolution. The induction of computers and satellites have brought a revolution in this field. The techniques of remote sensing (RS) are having multiple applications in various major disciplines viz. Geological Studies- Mineral Resources, Soil Surveys, Forest Resources, Agricultural uses, Water Resources, Land Use, Environmental Studies and have added a new dimension to the surveying capabilities for accelerated pace of map making and map revision. The techniques have found wide applications in finding thematic information of diverse types, on a regional scale expeditiously, economically and efficiently. We should keep ourselves abreast with these rapid scientific and technological developments - particularly application of satellite imageries for cartographic uses and should, use them in an optimal manner so that low cost, up-todate maps can be produced efficiently. The Cartographic applications of remotely sensed data and products will enable us to discharge our obligations in an efficient and economic manner .

Spectacular progress in science and technology, and frightening growth of the world population, have not only made a great impact but also a great demand on the surveying, mapping and allied disciplines.

(Indian population is forecasted to reach a billion by 2000 A"D .. ) which in some regions follows an exponential curve, requires rapid production of supplementary food, development of new energy generating plants, transportation and communication systems, schools, hospitals, etc. At the same time the technological progress, which permits rapid execution of huge engineering projects, changes irreversibly the face of the earth, disturbing in the process the natural ecological balance. The complexity of modern life is such, it is difficult to rule out shortcomings. However, countries on the road to development can put themselves in a somewhat advantageous position in this regard, if they would only profit from the earlier mistakes made by industrialised nations ..

The first step in such an effort is planning for rational development (in harmony with nature), tailored to the overall conditions of the country concerned, its traditions and culture, and in keeping with its physical characteristics such as extent, topography, climate, resources and population. The techniques of remote sensing have added a new dimension to the surveying capabilities for such purposes. In the present day context and needs when countries are passing through critical phases of known resources proving to be inadequate to meet the multi-farious growing needs of an ever increasing population, Cartographers have a useful role. We need to multiply our available resources manifold and towards this goal we all have to pool our managerial, scientific and technological resources and expertise. We need numerous types of maps and other geo data, on which to base our developmental planning, we need more of them, better and faster and more frequently. Administrators and planners, scientists and technologists have to appreciate that there is no substitute for a good map for a common base. All planning design, analysis and execution must be based on a scientifically established data base so that plans and schemes dovetail into each other after having been conceived in identical multidimensional space, suitably and adequately referenced.

Man's material, happiness and well being depends upon his understanding of the environment in which he lives and his skill in making use of the resources available to him. Historical processes have created an imbalance and given rise to marked differences in the material development of not only nations but of regions within the same nation. A new awareness of need for development with social justice and for a far more equitable distribution of the fruits of technological revolution is a special feature of the last few decades. That a number of resources which are essential for the present stage of technological Civilisation are non-renewable and limited in their availability is a disturbing fact but alas all too true.In this context it is well worth noting that the World is heading for an acute shortage of resources
currently in use. Knowledgeable experts have projected that if the present resources consumption and environmental pollution continues even at the present rate, the world reach a critical stage within a century. It may not exactly be so but all the same the fact of ever increasing pressure on land and other resources due to continued expected growth of population increased consumption due to expected improvements in earning capacity and consequential urbanization and changes in the pattern of land use can not be ignored. It all highlights the urgent need for
a) renewed efforts to locate and evaluate resources systematically,
b) developing technology so that needs are mostly me"t by use of renewable resources and by alternate resources of which there is as yet abundance,
c) conservation of available resources as possible to ensure that long term interests nation are protected.
much of as the now, before resources can be made use of they must be located and evaluated. In this field considerable progress has been made and there is ample scope for introducing scientific investigation techniques and planning. A systematic inventory of natural resources should be undertaken as a very first step towards planned development. In the sphere of location and evaluation of natural resources, the critical and scientific role of Geodetic and Topographical surveys is often lost sight of till a fairly late stage resulting in plans being delayed or else plans being prepared on inadequate data. In both the cases the loss to the community is considerable. Developments in the field of surveying and mapping have made it possible to speed up the process of making reliable inventory of the regions topographical and infra-structural resources so very essential for sound and scientific development planning. We are at the cross roads, we might as well look at where we started from and where we are going. We are all aware how thousand of years ago man started thinking about the environment, about the surroundings - and started making rudimentary maps. Things have changed much since. We have reached a stage where mapping has developed into a very well identified discipline - a scientific discipline in its own rights. Of course, as things kept on changing, the subject has become wider & wider. It is in this total context that I would like to discuss the future of cartography. Large tracts of earth have not yet been mapped. The process of mapping is a very, very slow process. Hardly half to one percent of the world is getting mapped progressively, and so, in that sense we have a long way to go for a global coverage (See Annexure WA'). Of course, there are regions which are very well mapped. Fortunately, in India, we are very well placed because the 1:50,000 cover is available for us.

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